Vital Signs Table

Pulse | Blood Pressure | Respirations | Vital Signs By Age | Lung sounds | Pulse oximetry
Glasgow Coma Scale | Apgar scale | Pain Scale


Pulse
Descriptors: regular, irregular, strong or weak
Adult 60 to 100 beats per minute
Children – age 1 to 8 years 80 to 100
Infants – age 1 to 12 months 100 to 120
Neonates – age 1 to 28 days 120 to 160
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Blood pressure
Systolic Diastolic
Adult 90 to 140 mmHg 60 to 90 mmHg
Children – age 1 to 8 years 80 to 110 mmHg
Infants – age 1 to 12 months 70 to 95 mmHg
Neonates – age 1 to 28 days >60 mmHg
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Respirations
Descriptors: normal, shallow,
labored, noisy, Kussmaul
Adult (normal) 12 to 20 breaths per minute
Children – age 1 to 8 years 15 to 30
Infants – age 1 to 12 months 25 to 50
Neonates – age 1 to 28 days 40 to 60
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Vital signs by age
Adult vital signs
Pulse 60 to 100 beats per minute
Blood pressure 90 to 140 mmHg (systolic)

60 to 90 mmHg (diastolic)

Respirations 12 to 20 breaths per minute
Child vital signs
(age 1 to 8 years)
Pulse 80 to 100 beats per minute
Blood pressure 80 to 110 mmHg systolic
Respirations 15 to 30 breaths per minute
Infant vital signs
Pulse 100 to 140 beats per minute
Blood pressure 70 to 95 mmHg systolic
Respirations 25 to 50 breaths per minute
Neonatal vital signs
(full-term, <28 days)
Pulse 120 to 160 beats per minute
Blood pressure >60 mmHg systolic
Respirations 40 to 60 breaths per minute
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Lung sounds
Crackles or rales crackling or rattling sounds
Wheezing high-pitched whistling expirations
Stridor harsh, high-pitched inspirations
Rhonchi coarse, gravelly sounds
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Pulse oximetry
Range Value Treatment
Normal 95 to 100% None or placebic
Mild hypoxia 91 to 94% Give oxygen
Moderate hypoxia 86 to 90% Give 100% oxygen
Severe hypoxia < 85% Give 100% oxygen w/ positive pressure
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Glasgow Coma Scale
ADULT INFANT
Eye opening E Eye opening
Spontaneous 4 Spontaneous
To speech 3 To speech
To pain 2 To pain
No response 1 No response
Best motor response M Best motor response
Obeys verbal command 6 Normal movements
Localizes pain 5 Localizes pain
Flexion – withdraws from pain 4 Withdraws from pain
Flexion – abnormal 3 Flexion – abnormal
Extension 2 Extension
No response 1 No response
Best verbal response V Best verbal response
Oriented and converses 5 Coos, babbles
Disoriented and converses 4 Cries but consolable
Inappropriate words 3 Persistently irritable
Incomprehensible sounds 2 Grunts to pain/restless
No response 1 No response
E + M + V = 3 to 15
  • 90% less than or equal to 8 are in coma
  • Greater than or equal to 9 not in coma
  • 8 is the critical score
  • Less than or equal to 8 at 6 hours – 50% die
  • 9-11 = moderate severity
  • Greater than or equal to 12 = minor injury

Coma is defined as not opening eyes, not obeying commands, and not uttering
understandable words.

Additional references:
Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide and House of DeFrance.
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Apgar Scale
(evaluate @ 1 and 5 minutes postpartum)
Sign 2 1 0
A Activity (muscle tone) Active Arms and legs flexed Absent
P Pulse >100 bpm <100 bpm Absent
G Grimace (reflex irritability) Sneezes, coughs, pulls away Grimaces No response
A Appearance (skin color) Normal over entire body Normal except extremities Cyanotic or pale all over
R Respirations Good, crying Slow, irregular Absent
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Pain scale
The 0-10 pain scale is becoming known
as the “fifth vital sign” in hospital, pre-hospital and outpatient care.
Patients are asked to rate their pain from 0 (no pain) to 10 (the most intense pain
imaginable), and a quantitative measure is taken.
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