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Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
Superficial Anterior Neck
Platysma CS AN Platysma Superficial fascia over upper part of deltoid & pectoralis major Mandible; skin & muscles over mandible & angle of mouth Depresses lower jaw & lip & angle of mouth; wrinkles skin of neck Facial nerve (CN-VII)
sternocleidomastoid CS AN SCM sternal head: manubrium of sternum; clavicular head: medial 1/3 of clavicle mastoid process of temporal bone; lateral 1/2 of superior nuchal line rotates to side opposite of contraction; laterally flexes to contracted side; bilaterally flexes neck motor: spinal accessory (XI cranial); sensory: ventral rami of C2,(C3)
Suprahyoid Muscles
Digastric CS AN Digastric Anterior belly from digastric fossa of mandible; posterior belly from mastoid notch Intermediate tendon attached to body of hyoid Elevates hyoid & tongue; depresses mandible Posterior belly by facial nerve; anterior belly by mylohyoid nerve or trigeminal nerve
MylohyoidCS AN Mylohyoid Mylohyoid line of mandible Median raphe & body of hyoid bone Elevates hyoid & tongue; depresses mandible Mylohyoid nerve or trigeminal nerve
Stylohyoid CS AN Stylohyoid Styloid process Body of hyoid Elevates hyoid Facial nerve
Geniohyoid CS AN Geniohyoid Genial tubercle of mandible Body of hyoid Elevates hyoid & tongue C1 via hypoglossal nerve
Infrahyoid Muscles
Sternohyoid CS AN Sternohyoid Manubrium sterni & medial end of clavicle Body of hyoid Depresses hyoid & larynx Ansa cervicalis
Sternothyroid CS AN Sternothyroid Manubrium sterni; first costal cartilage Oblique line of thyroid cartilage Depresses thyroid cartilage & larynx Ansa cervicalis
Thyrohyoid CS AN Thyrohyoid Oblique line of thyroid cartilage Body & greater horn of hyoid Depresses & retracts hyoid & larynx C1 via hypogloassal nerve
Omohyoid CS AN Omohyoid Inferior belly from medial lip of suprascapular notch & suprascapular ligament; superior belly from intermediate tendon Inferior belly to intermediate tendon; superior belly to body of hyoid Depresses & retracts hyoid & larynx Ansa cervicalis
Deep Anterior Cervical Muscles (prevertebrals)
longus coli CS AN Longus Colli lower anterior vertebral bodies & TP of C3-T3 anterior vertebral bodies & TP C1-C6 flexion & lateral flexion of neck; rotation of neck cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C2-C6)
longus capitis CS AN Longus Capitis TP of C3-C5 (anterior tubercles) occipital bone (basilar portion) flexion of head & neck; lateral flexion of head & neck cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C1-C3)
rectus capitis anterior CS AN Rectus Capitis Anterior atlas (C1) (anterior base of TP) occipital bone (basilar part anterior to foramen magnum) flexion of head cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C1-C2)
rectus capitis lateralis CS AN Rectus Capitis Lateralis atlas (C1) (superior surface of TP) occipital bone (jugular process) lateral flexion of head cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C1-C2)
Scalenes (paravertebrals)
scalene anterior CS AN Scalene_Anterior TP of C3-C6 (anterior tubercles) 1st rib (scalene tubercle) flexion & lateral flexion of neck; rotation of neck (weakly); elevation of 1st rib (if neck is stabilized) cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C3-C6)
scalene middle CS AN Scalene_Middle TP C2-C7 (posterior tubercle) 1st rib (behind anterior scalene) flexion & lateral flexion of neck; elevation of 1st rib (if cervical vertebrae are fixed) cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C3-C8)
scalene posterior CS AN Scalene_Posterior TP of C5-C7 (posterior tubercles) 2nd and/or 3rd rib lateral flexion of neck; elevation of 2nd rib (if cervical vertebrae are fixed) cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C6-C8)
scalenus minimus CS AN Scalenus Minimus TP C6-C7 (anterior tubercles) 1st rib and/or supraplural membrane flexion & lateral flexion of neck; rotation of neck (weakly); elevation of 2nd rib & superior pleura of lung (if neck is stabilized) variable (cervical & brachial plexus)
 
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
Superficial Posterior Neck
trapezius TS AN Trapezius external occipital protuberance (EOP); medial side of superior nuchal line; nuchal ligament; SPs of C7-T12 lateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion; spine of scapula stabilization of scapula; elevation scapula; upward rotation of scapula (upper fibers); downward rotation of scapula (lower fibers); retraction (adduction) of scapula; lateral flexion of head (unilateral); extension of head (bilateral) spinal accessory (CN XI), ventral rami of C2-C4
splenius capitis CS AN Splenius Capitis nuchal ligament (lower portion); SPs of C3-T4 mastoid process of temporal bone, occipital bone (superior nuchal line) bilateral contraction: extension of head & neck; unilateral contraction: rotation & lateral flexion of head & neck to ipsilateral side cervical spinal nerves (dorsal rami)
splenius cervicis CS AN Splenius Cervicis SPs of T3-T6 TP of C1-C3 (posterior tubercles) bilateral contraction: extension of head & neck; unilateral contraction: rotation & lateral flexion of head & neck to ipsilateral side cervical spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
levator scapulae CS AN Levator Scapulae 001 TP of C1-C4 superior medial border of scapula elevation of scapula; extension & lateral flexion of neck dorsal scapular nerve (C3, C4, C5)
spinalisTS AN Spinalis thoracis: SPs T11-L2 cervicis: SP of C7 & inferior nuchal ligament capitis: TPs of C7-T6 & articular process of C4-C6 (medial part of semispinalis) thoracis: SPs of T4-T8 cervicis: SP of C2 capitis: occipital bone (considered to be the medial part of semispinalis) bilateral: extension of the spine & head (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilization dorsal rami of spinal nerves
longissimusTS AN Longissimus thoracis: iliac crest, posterior sacrum, TPs L1-L5 cervicis: TPs of T1-T5 capitis: TPs & articular processes of C5-C7 & TPs of T1-T4 thoracis: TPs of T1-12 & ribs 4-12 (medial to tubercle) cervicis: TPs & posterior tubercles of C2-C6 capitis: temporal bone (mastoid process) bilateral: extension of the spine & head (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilization dorsal rami of spinal nerves
semispinalisTS AN Semispinalis thoracis: TPs of T6-T10 cervicis: TPs of T1-T5 capitis: TPs of C7-T6 & articular process of C4-C6 thoracis: SPs of C6-T4 cervicis: SPs of C2-C5 capitis: occipital bone (between superior & inferior nuchal lines) bilateral: extension of head & neck; controls lateral flexion to side opposite contraction (eccentric for stability); maintains head posture spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
Suboccipitals
obliquus capitis inferior CS AN Sub-OC_Inferior SP of axis (C2) TP of atlas (C1) rotation of head to ipsilateral side suboccipital nerve (dorsal rami C1)
obliquus capitis superior CS AN Sub-OC_Superior TP of atlas (C1) between superior & inferior nuchal line of occiput bilateral: extension of head; unilateral: lateral flexion of head to ipsilateral side suboccipital nerve (dorsal rami C1)
rectus capitis posterior major CS AN Sub-RCP_Major SP of axis (C2) lateral 1/2 inferior nuchal line (occipital bone) bilateral: extension of head; unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation of head to contracted side suboccipital nerve (dorsal rami C1)
rectus capitis posterior minor CS AN Sub-RCP_Minor posterior tubercle of atlas (C1) medial 1/2 of inferior nuchal line (occipital bone) bilaterally extends head suboccipital nerve (dorsal rami C1)
(c)Dr. Nikita Vizniak. All Rights ReservedIn order to use these tables as a learning tool, you will need to have JavaScript enabled.

These muscle tables are often slightly different than those found in the muscle manual and other texts to allow students learning to realize there are subtle differences in anatomical variation and nomenclature ultimate allowing you to be more aware of real life presentation – after 15 years and over 400 cadaver dissections this author is always amazed at the differences found in the human body every time we are in the cadaver lab – all text books and videos are only accurate to a point!

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