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MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
Superficial Anterior Neck
Platysma CS AN PlatysmaSuperficial fascia over upper part of deltoid & pectoralis majorMandible; skin & muscles over mandible & angle of mouthDepresses lower jaw & lip & angle of mouth; wrinkles skin of neckFacial nerve (CN-VII)
sternocleidomastoid CS AN SCMsternal head: manubrium of sternum; clavicular head: medial 1/3 of claviclemastoid process of temporal bone; lateral 1/2 of superior nuchal linerotates to side opposite of contraction; laterally flexes to contracted side; bilaterally flexes neckmotor: spinal accessory (XI cranial); sensory: ventral rami of C2,(C3)
Suprahyoid Muscles
Digastric CS AN DigastricAnterior belly from digastric fossa of mandible; posterior belly from mastoid notchIntermediate tendon attached to body of hyoidElevates hyoid & tongue; depresses mandiblePosterior belly by facial nerve; anterior belly by mylohyoid nerve or trigeminal nerve
MylohyoidCS AN MylohyoidMylohyoid line of mandibleMedian raphe & body of hyoid boneElevates hyoid & tongue; depresses mandibleMylohyoid nerve or trigeminal nerve
Stylohyoid CS AN StylohyoidStyloid processBody of hyoidElevates hyoidFacial nerve
Geniohyoid CS AN GeniohyoidGenial tubercle of mandibleBody of hyoidElevates hyoid & tongueC1 via hypoglossal nerve
Infrahyoid Muscles
Sternohyoid CS AN SternohyoidManubrium sterni & medial end of clavicleBody of hyoidDepresses hyoid & larynxAnsa cervicalis
Sternothyroid CS AN SternothyroidManubrium sterni; first costal cartilageOblique line of thyroid cartilageDepresses thyroid cartilage & larynxAnsa cervicalis
Thyrohyoid CS AN ThyrohyoidOblique line of thyroid cartilageBody & greater horn of hyoidDepresses & retracts hyoid & larynxC1 via hypogloassal nerve
Omohyoid CS AN OmohyoidInferior belly from medial lip of suprascapular notch & suprascapular ligament; superior belly from intermediate tendonInferior belly to intermediate tendon; superior belly to body of hyoidDepresses & retracts hyoid & larynxAnsa cervicalis
Deep Anterior Cervical Muscles (prevertebrals)
longus coli CS AN Longus Collilower anterior vertebral bodies & TP of C3-T3anterior vertebral bodies & TP C1-C6flexion & lateral flexion of neck; rotation of neckcervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C2-C6)
longus capitis CS AN Longus CapitisTP of C3-C5 (anterior tubercles)occipital bone (basilar portion)flexion of head & neck; lateral flexion of head & neckcervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C1-C3)
rectus capitis anterior CS AN Rectus Capitis Anterioratlas (C1) (anterior base of TP)occipital bone (basilar part anterior to foramen magnum)flexion of headcervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C1-C2)
rectus capitis lateralis CS AN Rectus Capitis Lateralisatlas (C1) (superior surface of TP)occipital bone (jugular process)lateral flexion of headcervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C1-C2)
Scalenes (paravertebrals)
scalene anterior CS AN Scalene_AnteriorTP of C3-C6 (anterior tubercles)1st rib (scalene tubercle)flexion & lateral flexion of neck; rotation of neck (weakly); elevation of 1st rib (if neck is stabilized)cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C3-C6)
scalene middle CS AN Scalene_MiddleTP C2-C7 (posterior tubercle)1st rib (behind anterior scalene)flexion & lateral flexion of neck; elevation of 1st rib (if cervical vertebrae are fixed)cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C3-C8)
scalene posterior CS AN Scalene_PosteriorTP of C5-C7 (posterior tubercles)2nd and/or 3rd riblateral flexion of neck; elevation of 2nd rib (if cervical vertebrae are fixed)cervical spinal nerves (ventral rami C6-C8)
scalenus minimus CS AN Scalenus MinimusTP C6-C7 (anterior tubercles)1st rib and/or supraplural membraneflexion & lateral flexion of neck; rotation of neck (weakly); elevation of 2nd rib & superior pleura of lung (if neck is stabilized)variable (cervical & brachial plexus)
 
MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
Superficial Posterior Neck
trapezius TS AN Trapeziusexternal occipital protuberance (EOP); medial side of superior nuchal line; nuchal ligament; SPs of C7-T12lateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion; spine of scapulastabilization of scapula; elevation scapula; upward rotation of scapula (upper fibers); downward rotation of scapula (lower fibers); retraction (adduction) of scapula; lateral flexion of head (unilateral); extension of head (bilateral)spinal accessory (CN XI), ventral rami of C2-C4
splenius capitis CS AN Splenius Capitisnuchal ligament (lower portion); SPs of C3-T4mastoid process of temporal bone, occipital bone (superior nuchal line)bilateral contraction: extension of head & neck; unilateral contraction: rotation & lateral flexion of head & neck to ipsilateral sidecervical spinal nerves (dorsal rami)
splenius cervicis CS AN Splenius CervicisSPs of T3-T6TP of C1-C3 (posterior tubercles)bilateral contraction: extension of head & neck; unilateral contraction: rotation & lateral flexion of head & neck to ipsilateral sidecervical spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
levator scapulae CS AN Levator Scapulae 001TP of C1-C4superior medial border of scapulaelevation of scapula; extension & lateral flexion of neckdorsal scapular nerve (C3, C4, C5)
spinalisTS AN Spinalisthoracis: SPs T11-L2 cervicis: SP of C7 & inferior nuchal ligament capitis: TPs of C7-T6 & articular process of C4-C6 (medial part of semispinalis)thoracis: SPs of T4-T8 cervicis: SP of C2 capitis: occipital bone (considered to be the medial part of semispinalis)bilateral: extension of the spine & head (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilizationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
longissimusTS AN Longissimusthoracis: iliac crest, posterior sacrum, TPs L1-L5 cervicis: TPs of T1-T5 capitis: TPs & articular processes of C5-C7 & TPs of T1-T4thoracis: TPs of T1-12 & ribs 4-12 (medial to tubercle) cervicis: TPs & posterior tubercles of C2-C6 capitis: temporal bone (mastoid process)bilateral: extension of the spine & head (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilizationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
semispinalisTS AN Semispinalisthoracis: TPs of T6-T10 cervicis: TPs of T1-T5 capitis: TPs of C7-T6 & articular process of C4-C6thoracis: SPs of C6-T4 cervicis: SPs of C2-C5 capitis: occipital bone (between superior & inferior nuchal lines)bilateral: extension of head & neck; controls lateral flexion to side opposite contraction (eccentric for stability); maintains head posturespinal nerve (dorsal rami)
Suboccipitals
obliquus capitis inferior CS AN Sub-OC_InferiorSP of axis (C2)TP of atlas (C1)rotation of head to ipsilateral sidesuboccipital nerve (dorsal rami C1)
obliquus capitis superior CS AN Sub-OC_SuperiorTP of atlas (C1)between superior & inferior nuchal line of occiputbilateral: extension of head; unilateral: lateral flexion of head to ipsilateral sidesuboccipital nerve (dorsal rami C1)
rectus capitis posterior major CS AN Sub-RCP_MajorSP of axis (C2)lateral 1/2 inferior nuchal line (occipital bone)bilateral: extension of head; unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation of head to contracted sidesuboccipital nerve (dorsal rami C1)
rectus capitis posterior minor CS AN Sub-RCP_Minorposterior tubercle of atlas (C1)medial 1/2 of inferior nuchal line (occipital bone)bilaterally extends headsuboccipital nerve (dorsal rami C1)
(c)Dr. Nikita Vizniak. All Rights ReservedIn order to use these tables as a learning tool, you will need to have JavaScript enabled.

These muscle tables are often slightly different than those found in the muscle manual and other texts to allow students learning to realize there are subtle differences in anatomical variation and nomenclature ultimate allowing you to be more aware of real life presentation – after 15 years and over 400 cadaver dissections this author is always amazed at the differences found in the human body every time we are in the cadaver lab – all text books and videos are only accurate to a point!

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