Test your knowledge: CS AN Eye_ColourCS AN Tongue_Colour
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MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
Inferior rectuscommon tendinous ring (off body & lesser wing of sphenoid); margins of optic canalsclera just behind corneadepression of eye (look down)oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Lateral rectuscommon tendinous ring (off body & lesser wing of sphenoid); margins of optic canalsclera just behind corneaabduction of eyeabducens nerve (CN VI)
Medial rectuscommon tendinous ring (off body & lesser wing of sphenoid); margins of optic canalsclera just behind corneaadduction of eyeoculomotor nerve (CN III)
Superior rectuscommon tendinous ring (off body & lesser wing of sphenoid); margins of optic canalsclera just behind corneaelevation of eye (look up)oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Superior obliquebody of sphenoid (above optic canal)upper lateral quadrant of posterior half of sclera (via trochlea, as a pulley)rotation of eye downward & medially; depression of adducted eyetrochlear nerve (CN IV)
Inferior obliqueorbital surface of maxillalower lateral quadrant of posterior half of sclera (via suspensory ligament, as a pulley)rotation of eye upward & laterally; elevation of adducted eyeoculomotor nerve (CN III)
Levator palpebrae superiorislesser wing of sphenoid bone (anterior surface)upper eyelid (fascia & skin)elevates upper eyelidoculomotor nerve (CN III)
 
MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
Tensor veli palatiniScaphoid fossa; spine of spehnoid; cartilage of auditory tubeTendon hooks around hamulus of medial pterygoid plate to insert into aponeurosis of soft palateTenses soft palateMandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
Levator veli palatiniPetrous part of temporal bone; cartilage of auditory tubeAponeurosis of soft palateElevates soft palateVagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
PalatoglossusAponeurosis of soft palateDorsolateral side of tongueElevates tongueVagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
PalatopharyngeusAponeurosis of soft palateThyroid cartilage & side of pharynxElevates pharynx; closes nasopharynxVagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
Musculus uvulaePosterior nasal spine of palatine bone; palatine aponeurosisMucous membrane of uvulaElevates uvulaVagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
 
MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
genioglossussuperior mental spine (posterior surface of symphysis menti)central mass of tongue & mucous membraneprotraction of tonguehypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
hyoglossushyoid bone (superior border of greater cornu)tongue (lateral side)depression of tonguehypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
intrinsic tongue musclessuperior & inferior longitudinal, transverse & vertical elementsmucous membrane, septum & other muscles of tonguechange shape of tongue to aid mastication, speech & swallowinghypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
levator veli palatinitemporal bone (apex of inferior surface of petrous portion) & medial rim of auditory tubepalatine aponeurosiselevation, retraction & lateral deviation of soft palate; may open auditory tube on swallowingpharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X) with its motor fibers from cranial accessory nerve (XI)
m. uvulaeposterior border of hard palatepalatine aponeurosisshapes uvulapharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X) with its motor fibers from cranial accessory nerve (XI)
pharynx - constrictor inferiorcricopharyngeus: cricoid cartilage (lateral aspect); thyropharyngeus: thyroid cartilage (oblique line) & fibrous cricothyroid archcricopharyngeus: continuous with muscle of opposite side, behind pharynx; thyropharyngeus : lower pharyngeal rapheassists swallowing; cricopharyngeus acts as upper esophageal sphincterpharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - constrictor middlestylohyoid ligament (lower third) hyoid bone (lesser cornu & superior border of greater cornu)pharyngeal raphe (middle portion)assists in swallowingpharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - constrictor superiormedial pterygoid plate (lower two thirds), pterygomandibular raphe & mylohyoid line on mandible (posterior portion)pharyngeal raphe (upper midline) & occipital bone (pharyngeal tubercle of clivus)assists swallowingpharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - palatoglossuspalatine aponeurosisposterolateral tongueassists initiation of swallowing; elevation of posterior tongue & closes oropharyngeal isthmuspharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - palatopharyngeuspalatine aponeurosis & hard palate (posterior margin)thyroid cartilage (upper border) & blends with constrictor fibers; upper fibers interdigitate with opposite side (Passavant's ridge)elevation of pharynx & larynx; Passavant's muscle closes nasopharyngeal isthmus during swallowingpharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - salpingopharyngeusinferior cartilage & mucosa of pharyngeal orifice of auditory tubethyroid cartilage (upper border) & inferior constrictor muscle fiberselevation of pharynx & larynx & aids swallowing; opens auditory canal during swallowingpharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
stylopharyngeusstyloid process (medial aspect)thyroid cartilage (posterolateral border)Elevation of larynx & pharynx; assists in swallowingglossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
tensor veli palatinisphenoid bone (scaphoid fossa & medial aspect of spine)palatine aponeurosis (via pulley of pterygoid hamulus)tenses soft palate prior to elevationtrigeminal nerve (CN V, mandibular branch)
 
MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
aryepiglotticusarytenoid cartilage apexepiglottis (lateral border)assists in closure of additus of larynxvagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
cricrothyroidcricoid cartilage (anterolateral aspect)thyroid cartilage (inferior cornu & lower laminar)lengthens & tenses vocal cords by tilting thyroid cartilage forwards (increases pitch of sound)vagus nerve (CN X, superior laryngeal)
cricoarytenoidcricoid cartilage (posterior aspect)arytenoid cartilage (muscular process)abduction & lateral rotation arytenoid cartilage (opens rima glottidis)vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
oblique arytenoidarytenoid cartilage (muscular process)superior pole of opposite arytenoid cartilageadduction of arytenoid cartilages (closes rima glottidis )vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
lateral cricoarytenoidcricoid cartilage (lateral aspect of arch)arytenoid cartilage (muscular process)adduction & medial rotation of arytenoid cartilage (closes rima glottidis)vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
thyro-arytenoid & vocalisthyroid cartilage (lower posterior surface of angle between laminae)arytenoid cartilage (vocal process)shortens & relaxes vocal cords by medial rotation & protraction of arytenoid cartilage (lowers pitch of sound)vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
thyro-epidlotticus & vocalisthyroid cartilage (lower posterior surface)epiglottis (lateral border)assists in closure of additus to larynxvagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
transverse arytenoidarytenoid cartilage (posterior surface & muscular process)corresponding surfaces of opposite side arytenoid cartilageadduction arytenoid cartilage (closes rima glottidis)vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
 
MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
StyloglossusStyloid processSide & inferior aspect of tongueRetracts & elevates tongueHypoglossal nerve
HyoglossusBody & greater horn of hyoid boneSide & inferior aspect of tongueDepresses & retracts tongueHypoglossal nerve
GenioglossusGenial tubercle of mandibleInferior aspect of tongue; body of hyoid boneProtrudes & depresses tongueHypoglossal nerve
PalatoglossusAponeurosis of soft palateDorsolateral side of tongueElevates tongueVagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
(c)Dr. Nikita Vizniak. All Rights ReservedIn order to use these tables as a learning tool, you will need to have JavaScript enabled.

These muscle tables are often slightly different than those found in the muscle manual and other texts to allow students learning to realize there are subtle differences in anatomical variation and nomenclature ultimate allowing you to be more aware of real life presentation – after 15 years and over 400 cadaver dissections this author is always amazed at the differences found in the human body every time we are in the cadaver lab – all text books and videos are only accurate to a point!

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