Muscle Tables

Test your knowledge: CS AN Eye_ColourCS AN Tongue_Colour
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Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
Inferior rectus common tendinous ring (off body & lesser wing of sphenoid); margins of optic canal sclera just behind cornea depression of eye (look down) oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Lateral rectus common tendinous ring (off body & lesser wing of sphenoid); margins of optic canal sclera just behind cornea abduction of eye abducens nerve (CN VI)
Medial rectus common tendinous ring (off body & lesser wing of sphenoid); margins of optic canal sclera just behind cornea adduction of eye oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Superior rectus common tendinous ring (off body & lesser wing of sphenoid); margins of optic canal sclera just behind cornea elevation of eye (look up) oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Superior oblique body of sphenoid (above optic canal) upper lateral quadrant of posterior half of sclera (via trochlea, as a pulley) rotation of eye downward & medially; depression of adducted eye trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Inferior oblique orbital surface of maxilla lower lateral quadrant of posterior half of sclera (via suspensory ligament, as a pulley) rotation of eye upward & laterally; elevation of adducted eye oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Levator palpebrae superioris lesser wing of sphenoid bone (anterior surface) upper eyelid (fascia & skin) elevates upper eyelid oculomotor nerve (CN III)
 
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
Tensor veli palatini Scaphoid fossa; spine of spehnoid; cartilage of auditory tube Tendon hooks around hamulus of medial pterygoid plate to insert into aponeurosis of soft palate Tenses soft palate Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
Levator veli palatini Petrous part of temporal bone; cartilage of auditory tube Aponeurosis of soft palate Elevates soft palate Vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
Palatoglossus Aponeurosis of soft palate Dorsolateral side of tongue Elevates tongue Vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
Palatopharyngeus Aponeurosis of soft palate Thyroid cartilage & side of pharynx Elevates pharynx; closes nasopharynx Vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
Musculus uvulae Posterior nasal spine of palatine bone; palatine aponeurosis Mucous membrane of uvula Elevates uvula Vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
 
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
genioglossus superior mental spine (posterior surface of symphysis menti) central mass of tongue & mucous membrane protraction of tongue hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
hyoglossus hyoid bone (superior border of greater cornu) tongue (lateral side) depression of tongue hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
intrinsic tongue muscles superior & inferior longitudinal, transverse & vertical elements mucous membrane, septum & other muscles of tongue change shape of tongue to aid mastication, speech & swallowing hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
levator veli palatini temporal bone (apex of inferior surface of petrous portion) & medial rim of auditory tube palatine aponeurosis elevation, retraction & lateral deviation of soft palate; may open auditory tube on swallowing pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X) with its motor fibers from cranial accessory nerve (XI)
m. uvulae posterior border of hard palate palatine aponeurosis shapes uvula pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X) with its motor fibers from cranial accessory nerve (XI)
pharynx - constrictor inferior cricopharyngeus: cricoid cartilage (lateral aspect); thyropharyngeus: thyroid cartilage (oblique line) & fibrous cricothyroid arch cricopharyngeus: continuous with muscle of opposite side, behind pharynx; thyropharyngeus : lower pharyngeal raphe assists swallowing; cricopharyngeus acts as upper esophageal sphincter pharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - constrictor middle stylohyoid ligament (lower third) hyoid bone (lesser cornu & superior border of greater cornu) pharyngeal raphe (middle portion) assists in swallowing pharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - constrictor superior medial pterygoid plate (lower two thirds), pterygomandibular raphe & mylohyoid line on mandible (posterior portion) pharyngeal raphe (upper midline) & occipital bone (pharyngeal tubercle of clivus) assists swallowing pharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - palatoglossus palatine aponeurosis posterolateral tongue assists initiation of swallowing; elevation of posterior tongue & closes oropharyngeal isthmus pharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - palatopharyngeus palatine aponeurosis & hard palate (posterior margin) thyroid cartilage (upper border) & blends with constrictor fibers; upper fibers interdigitate with opposite side (Passavant's ridge) elevation of pharynx & larynx; Passavant's muscle closes nasopharyngeal isthmus during swallowing pharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
pharynx - salpingopharyngeus inferior cartilage & mucosa of pharyngeal orifice of auditory tube thyroid cartilage (upper border) & inferior constrictor muscle fibers elevation of pharynx & larynx & aids swallowing; opens auditory canal during swallowing pharyngeal plexus (IX, X & sympathetic via pharyngeal branch of X with motor fibers from spinal accessory (XI)
stylopharyngeus styloid process (medial aspect) thyroid cartilage (posterolateral border) Elevation of larynx & pharynx; assists in swallowing glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
tensor veli palatini sphenoid bone (scaphoid fossa & medial aspect of spine) palatine aponeurosis (via pulley of pterygoid hamulus) tenses soft palate prior to elevation trigeminal nerve (CN V, mandibular branch)
 
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
aryepiglotticus arytenoid cartilage apex epiglottis (lateral border) assists in closure of additus of larynx vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
cricrothyroid cricoid cartilage (anterolateral aspect) thyroid cartilage (inferior cornu & lower laminar) lengthens & tenses vocal cords by tilting thyroid cartilage forwards (increases pitch of sound) vagus nerve (CN X, superior laryngeal)
cricoarytenoid cricoid cartilage (posterior aspect) arytenoid cartilage (muscular process) abduction & lateral rotation arytenoid cartilage (opens rima glottidis) vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
oblique arytenoid arytenoid cartilage (muscular process) superior pole of opposite arytenoid cartilage adduction of arytenoid cartilages (closes rima glottidis ) vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
lateral cricoarytenoid cricoid cartilage (lateral aspect of arch) arytenoid cartilage (muscular process) adduction & medial rotation of arytenoid cartilage (closes rima glottidis) vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
thyro-arytenoid & vocalis thyroid cartilage (lower posterior surface of angle between laminae) arytenoid cartilage (vocal process) shortens & relaxes vocal cords by medial rotation & protraction of arytenoid cartilage (lowers pitch of sound) vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
thyro-epidlotticus & vocalis thyroid cartilage (lower posterior surface) epiglottis (lateral border) assists in closure of additus to larynx vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
transverse arytenoid arytenoid cartilage (posterior surface & muscular process) corresponding surfaces of opposite side arytenoid cartilage adduction arytenoid cartilage (closes rima glottidis) vagus nerve (CN X, recurrent laryngeal branch)
 
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
Styloglossus Styloid process Side & inferior aspect of tongue Retracts & elevates tongue Hypoglossal nerve
Hyoglossus Body & greater horn of hyoid bone Side & inferior aspect of tongue Depresses & retracts tongue Hypoglossal nerve
Genioglossus Genial tubercle of mandible Inferior aspect of tongue; body of hyoid bone Protrudes & depresses tongue Hypoglossal nerve
Palatoglossus Aponeurosis of soft palate Dorsolateral side of tongue Elevates tongue Vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
(c)Dr. Nikita Vizniak. All Rights ReservedIn order to use these tables as a learning tool, you will need to have JavaScript enabled.

These muscle tables are often slightly different than those found in the muscle manual and other texts to allow students learning to realize there are subtle differences in anatomical variation and nomenclature ultimate allowing you to be more aware of real life presentation – after 15 years and over 400 cadaver dissections this author is always amazed at the differences found in the human body every time we are in the cadaver lab – all text books and videos are only accurate to a point!