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Ligament Attaches (origin/insertion) Function
Cervical Ligaments
Anterior longitudinal Anterior vertebral body & disc to next vertebrae Resists neck extension
Annulus fibrosus Vertebral bodies from C3-S1 Shock absorption, resists all spinal motions
Posterior longitudinal Posterior vertebral body & disc to next vertebrae Resists neck flexion
Z-joint capsule Facet below to facet above Resist flexion & lateral flexion of neck
Ligamentum flavum Laminae to laminae Resists flexion of trunk, elasticity assists extension of trunk
Interspinous Spinous process to spinous process Resists flexion of trunk & shear forces on vertebrae
Supraspinous Spinous process to SP above Resists trunk flexion & forward shear force on spine
Nuchal EOP to C7-T1 Sps Resists flexion, attachment point for muscles
Alar Apex of dens to medial occipital Resists lateral flexion & rotation of head; holds dens into atlas
Apical Apex of dens to front foramen magnum Holds dens into atlas & skull
Cruciform Odontoid bone to arch of atlas (C1-2 stability) Stabilizes C1-C2, resists anterior translation of C1 (prevent brainstem compression)
Thoracic Ligaments
Anterior longitudinal Anterior vertebral body & disc to next vertebrae Resists spinal extension
Annulus fibrosus Vertebral bodies from C3-S1 Shock absorption, resists all spinal motions
Posterior longitudinal Posterior vertebral body & disc to next vertebrae Resists spinal flexion
Z-joint capsule Facet above to facet below Resist flexion & lateral flexion of trunk
Ligamentum flavum Laminae to laminae Resists flexion of trunk, elasticity assists extension of trunk
Interspinous Spinous process to SP Resists flexion of trunk, & shear forces on vertebrae
Supraspinous Spinous process to SP above on tips Resists trunk flexion & forward shear force on spine
Intertransverse Transverse process to TP Resists lateral flexion of trunk
Costotransverse Tubercles of ribs to transverse process of vertebrae Supports rib attachment to thoracic vertebrae
Radiate Head of ribs to body of vertebrae Maintains ribs to thoracic vertebrae
Lumbar & SI Ligaments
Anterior longitudinal Anterior vertebral body & disc to next vertebrae Resists spinal extension
Annulus fibrosus Vertebral bodies from C3-S1 Shock absorption, resists all spinal motions
Posterior longitudinal Posterior vertebral body & disc to next vertebrae Resists spinal flexion
Z-joint capsule Facet below to facet above Resist flexion & lateral flexion of trunk
Ligamentum flavum Laminae to laminae Resists flexion of trunk, elasticity assists extension of trunk
Interspinous Spinous process to spinous process Resists flexion of trunk, & shear forces on vertebrae
Supraspinous Spinous process to SP above Resists trunk flexion & forward shear force on spine
Intertransverse Transverse process to TP Resists lateral flexion of trunk
Iliolumbar Transverse process of L4-5 to iliac crest Resists lumbar flexion & rotation
Inguinal ASIS to pubic tubercle Attachment point of abdominal muscle and fascia lata of thigh
Sacrotuberous Sacrum to ischial tuberosity Resists sacral nutation
Sacrospinous Sacrum to ischial spine Resists sacral nutation & lateral flexion
Sacroiliac (ant/post) Sacrum to ilium Resists sacral nutation, holds SI joint together
Shoulder Ligaments
Acromioclavicular Acromion process to clavicle Resists AC joint separation
Coracoacromial Corocoid process to acromion process Forms arch over shoulder
Coracoclavicular
Trapezoid
Conoid
Coracoid process to clavicle Resists anterior and posterior scapula movements & upward/downward movements of clavicle on scapula
Coracohumeral Coracoid process to greater and lesser tuberosity on humerus Resists upward humeral head movement & external rotation.
Supports weight of arm
Costoclavicular Clavicle to 1st rib Resists clavicle elevation, anterior, posterior, and lateral movement.
Supports weight of arm
Glenohumeral
Superior
Middle
Inferior
Upper, anterior edge of glenoid to over, in front, and below humeral head Tight with external rotation & abduction past 100į.
Prevents anterior dislocation of humerus; resists clavicular motion, supports weight of arm
Interclavicular Clavicle to clavicle Checks motion of clavicle, supports arm weight
Elbow Ligaments
Annular Anterior margin of radial notch to posterior margin of radial notion Surrounds and supports head of radius; holds radius in joint
Radial collateral Lateral epicondyle to annular ligament Supports lateral joint (resists varus forces)
Ulnar collateral
Posterior, Transverse, Anterior
Medial epicondyle, olecranon process to coronoid process Supports medial joint (resists valgus forces - throwing, falling)
Wrist & Hand Ligaments
Interosseous membrane Shafts of radius & ulna Resists separation of radius & ulna, helps control supination & pronation, attachment point for forearm muscles
Radial Collateral Radius to scaphoid, trapezium Supports lateral side of wrist (resists valgus forces)
Ulnar Collateral Ulna to pisiform, triquetrum Supports medial side of wrist (resists varus forces, support triangular fibrocartilage)
Dorsal Radiocarpal Distal radius to scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum Connects radius to carpals; supports posterior side of wrist
Palmar Intercarpal Scaphoid to lunate, triquetrum Holds carpals together
Palmar Plates Across anterior joint of MP, PIP, DIP Supports anterior MP, PIP, & DIP joint
Palmar Radiocarpal Distal radius to scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum Connects radius to carpals; supports anterior side of wrist
Transverse Carpal Hamate & pisiform to scaphoid & trapezium Fibrous sheath which contains carpal tunnel, important part of digital flexor pulley system
Intercarpal First row of carpals to second row of carpals Holds carpals together
Collateral Phalanx to phalanx, sides of MCP, PIP & DIP joints Supports sides of fingers; resists varus/valgus force
Hip Ligaments
Iliofemoral AIIS to intertrochanteric line of femur Supports anterior hip; resists in movements of extension, internal rotation, external rotation
Ischiofemoral Posterior acetabulum to iliofemoral ligament Resists adduction & internal rotation
Pubofemoral Pubic part of acetabulum, superior rami to intertrochanteric line Resists in movements of abduction & external rotation
Ligament teres Acetabular notch & transverse ligament to pit on head of femur Transmits vessels to head of femur; may resist distraction forces of joint
Obturator Membrane Covers obturator foramen Attachment point of obturator internus & externus
Knee Ligaments
Patellar (infrapatellar tend.) Interior patella to tibial tuberosity Transmits force from quadriceps to tibia
Anterior Cruciate Anterior intercondylar area of tibia to medial surface of lateral femoral condyle Resists anterior tibial translation & extension, internal rotation, flexion (tight in full extension)
Posterior cruciate Posterior tibial spine to inner lateral femoral condyle Resists posterior tibial movement, movements of flexion & rotation (tight in full extension)
Medial (tibial) collateral Medial epicondyle of femur to medial condyle of tibia & medial meniscus Resists valgus forces (tight in extension) & internal/external rotation (direct attachment to medial meniscus)
Lateral (fibular) collateral Lateral epicondyle of femur to head of fibula Resists varus forces (tight in extension)
Anterolateral lig (ALL) Lateral femur epicondyle to proximal tibia (attaches to lateral meniscus) Supports anterolateral stability of the knee (may influence meniscus mobility)
Proximal Tib-Fib Tibia to fibular head Holds fibula against tibia, resists superior, anterior and posterior fibular translation (heel strike)
Ankle Ligaments
Interosseous Shaft of fibula to tibia Resists separation of tibia & fibula, muscle attachment point
Tibiofibular (anterior/posterior) Distal fibula to tibia Resists separation of tibia & fibula
Anterior talofibular Lateral malleolus to neck of talus Resists anterior displacement of foot/talar tilt; resists plantar flexion & inversion
Calcaneofibular Lateral malleolus to tubercle on outer calcaneus Resists inversion & backward translation of foot
Posterior talofibular Inner, back, lateral malleolus to posterior surface of talus Resists plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion
Deltoid Medial malleolus to talus, navicular, calcaneus Resists valgus forces to ankle; plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, eversion, & abduction of foot
Spring or Plantar calcaneonavicular Anterior margin of calcaneus to inferior navicular Supports arch
Long plantar Inferior calcaneus to cuboid & metatarsals Supports arch
Transverse metatarsal Tarsals to metatarsals Supports arch; maintains relationship between tarsals & metatarsals
Intertarsal Tarsal to tarsal Maintain articular relationship & arch
Collateral Phalanx to phalanx, sides of MTP, PIP & DIP joints Supports sides of toes; resists varus/valgus force
(c)Dr. Nikita Vizniak. All Rights ReservedIn order to use these tables as a learning tool, you will need to have JavaScript enabled.

¬©Dr. Nikita Vizniak – These ligament tables are often slightly different than those found in the¬†muscle manual¬†and other texts to allow students learning to realize there are subtle differences in anatomical variation and nomenclature ultimate allowing you to be more aware of real life presentation ‚Äď after 15 years and over 400 cadaver dissections¬†this author¬†is always amazed at the differences found in the human body every time we are in the cadaver lab ‚Äď all text books and videos are only accurate to a point!