TS AN Erector Spinae 001Torso posterior Vizniak

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Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
Superficial Posterior Neck
trapezius TS AN Trapezius external occipital protuberance (EOP); medial side of superior nuchal line; nuchal ligament; SPs of C7-T12 lateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion; spine of scapula stabilization of scapula; elevation scapula; upward rotation of scapula (upper fibers); downward rotation of scapula (lower fibers); retraction (adduction) of scapula; lateral flexion of head (unilateral); extension of head (bilateral) spinal accessory (CN XI), ventral rami of C2-C4
splenius capitisCS AN Splenius Capitis nuchal ligament (lower portion); SPs of C3-T4 mastoid process of temporal bone, occipital bone (superior nuchal line) bilateral contraction: extension of head & neck; unilateral contraction: rotation & lateral flexion of head & neck to ipsilateral side cervical spinal nerves (dorsal rami)
splenius cervicisCS AN Splenius Cervicis SPs of T3-T6 TP of C1-C3 (posterior tubercles) bilateral contraction: extension of head & neck; unilateral contraction: rotation & lateral flexion of head & neck to ipsilateral side cervical spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
levator scapulaeCS AN Levator Scapulae 001 TP of C1-C4 superior medial border of scapula elevation of scapula; extension & lateral flexion of neck dorsal scapular nerve (C3, C4, C5)
 
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
trapeziusTS AN Trapezius external occipital protuberance (EOP); medial side of superior nuchal line; nuchal ligament; SPs of C7-T12 lateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion; spine of scapula stabilization of scapula; elevation scapula; upward rotation of scapula (upper fibers); downward rotation of scapula (lower fibers); retraction (adduction) of scapula; lateral flexion of head (unilateral); extension of head (bilateral) spinal accessory (CN XI), ventral rami of C2-C4
latissimus dorsiTS AN Latissimus Dorsi 001 SP T7-L5; thoracolumbar fascia; iliac crest; posterior sacrum, ribs 9-12; inferior angle of scapula (occasionally) medial lip of bicipital groove of humerus adduction, medial rotation & extension of humerus; anterior pelvic tilt, elevation of pelvis; depression of scapula; downward rotation of scapula thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8)
levator scapulaeCS AN Levator Scapulae 001 TP of C1-C4 medial border of scapula (superior part) elevation of scapula; extension & lateral flexion of neck dorsal scapular nerve (C3, C4, C5)
rhomboidsTS AN Rhomboids Major: SPs of T2-T5; supraspinous ligament Minor: SPs of C7 & T1; ligamentum nuchae; supraspinous ligament medial border of scapula Major: scapular spine to inferior angle Minor: medial angle/root of spine retraction (adduction) of scapula; elevation & downward rotation of scapula dorsal scapular nerve (C4-C5)
serratus anteriorTS AN Serratus Anterior   ribs 1- 9 (outer surface) costal surface of medial border of scapula protract (abducts) scapula; upward rotation of scapula; stabilizes scapula long thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7)
serratus posterior inferiorTS AN Serratus Post-Inferior SPs of T11-L2 ribs 9-12 (inferior external border) depression of ribs intercostal & sub costal nerves
serratus posterior superiorTS AN Serratus Post-Superior SPs of C7-T3 ribs 2-5 (superior external border) elevation of ribs intercostal & sub costal nerves
 
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve
Erector Spinae Group
iliocostalisTS AN Iliocostalis lumborum: medial iliac crest & sacrum thoracis: angle of ribs 7-12 cervicis: angle of ribs 3-6 lumborum: angle of ribs 7-12 thoracis: angle of ribs 1-6 cervicis: TPs of C3-C6 bilateral: extension of the spine (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilization dorsal rami of spinal nerves
longissimusTS AN Longissimus thoracis: iliac crest, posterior sacrum, TPs L1-L5 cervicis: TPs of T1-T5 capitis: TPs & articular processes of C5-C7 & TPs of T1-T4 thoracis: TPs of T1-12 & ribs 4-12 (medial to tubercle) cervicis: TPs & posterior tubercles of C2-C6 capitis: temporal bone (mastoid process) bilateral: extension of the spine & head (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilization dorsal rami of spinal nerves
spinalisTS AN Spinalis thoracis: SPs T11-L2 cervicis: SP of C7 & inferior nuchal ligament capitis: TPs of C7-T6 & articular process of C4-C6 (medial part of semispinalis) thoracis: SPs of T4-T8 cervicis: SP of C2 capitis: occipital bone (considered to be the medial part of semispinalis) bilateral: extension of the spine & head (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilization dorsal rami of spinal nerves
Transversospinalis Group
semispinalisTS AN Semispinalis thoracis: TPs of T6-T10 cervicis: TPs of T1-T5 capitis: TPs of C7-T6 & articular process of C4-C6 thoracis: SPs of C6-T4 cervicis: SPs of C2-C5 capitis: occipital bone (between superior & inferior nuchal lines) bilateral: extension of head & neck; controls lateral flexion to side opposite contraction (eccentric for stability); maintains head posture spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
multifidusTS AN Multifidi lumbar: mamillary processes of L1-L5 (not TPs) thoracic: TP of T1-T12 cervical: articular processes of C4-C7 (not TPs) SPs of all vertebrae extending from L5 - C2, 3-4 segments above the origin bilateral: extension of vertebral column (trunk & neck); unilateral: rotate vertebral bodies (column) to opposite side; control lateral flexion to side opposite contraction (eccentric for stability) spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
rotatoresTS AN Rotatores transverse processes of C3-L5 (most developed in thoracic spine) spinous process (base) & lamina 1-2 segments above origin rotation to opposite side, bilateral extension; stabilize vertebra & are involved as organs of proprioception (position sense of the spine due to the large number of sensory nerve fibers in these tiny muscles) spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
Other deep group muscles
quadratus lumborumTS AN Quadratus Lumborum posterior iliac crest & iliolumbar ligament 12th rib (inferior border) & TPs of L1-L4 elevation of pelvis; lateral flexion of trunk; depression of 12th rib lumbar plexus (T12-L3)
interspinalisTS AN Interspinalis 001 SP of vertebrae SP of vertebrae above extension of neck & trunk dorsal rami of spinal nerves
intertransversariiTS AN Interspinalis 001 TP of vertebrae TP of vertebrae above lateral flexion of neck & trunk dorsal rami of spinal nerves
levator costarumTS AN Interspinalis 001 TPs C7-T11 (posterior lateral tip) ribs 1-12 (below the TP) elevation of ribs (inspiration) dorsal rami of spinal nerves
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These muscle tables are often slightly different than those found in the muscle manual and other texts to allow students learning to realize there are subtle differences in anatomical variation and nomenclature ultimate allowing you to be more aware of real life presentation – after 15 years and over 400 cadaver dissections this author is always amazed at the differences found in the human body every time we are in the cadaver lab – all text books and videos are only accurate to a point!