TS AN Erector Spinae 001Torso posterior Vizniak

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MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
Superficial Posterior Neck
trapezius TS AN Trapeziusexternal occipital protuberance (EOP); medial side of superior nuchal line; nuchal ligament; SPs of C7-T12lateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion; spine of scapulastabilization of scapula; elevation scapula; upward rotation of scapula (upper fibers); downward rotation of scapula (lower fibers); retraction (adduction) of scapula; lateral flexion of head (unilateral); extension of head (bilateral)spinal accessory (CN XI), ventral rami of C2-C4
splenius capitisCS AN Splenius Capitisnuchal ligament (lower portion); SPs of C3-T4mastoid process of temporal bone, occipital bone (superior nuchal line)bilateral contraction: extension of head & neck; unilateral contraction: rotation & lateral flexion of head & neck to ipsilateral sidecervical spinal nerves (dorsal rami)
splenius cervicisCS AN Splenius CervicisSPs of T3-T6TP of C1-C3 (posterior tubercles)bilateral contraction: extension of head & neck; unilateral contraction: rotation & lateral flexion of head & neck to ipsilateral sidecervical spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
levator scapulaeCS AN Levator Scapulae 001TP of C1-C4superior medial border of scapulaelevation of scapula; extension & lateral flexion of neckdorsal scapular nerve (C3, C4, C5)
 
MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
trapeziusTS AN Trapeziusexternal occipital protuberance (EOP); medial side of superior nuchal line; nuchal ligament; SPs of C7-T12lateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion; spine of scapulastabilization of scapula; elevation scapula; upward rotation of scapula (upper fibers); downward rotation of scapula (lower fibers); retraction (adduction) of scapula; lateral flexion of head (unilateral); extension of head (bilateral)spinal accessory (CN XI), ventral rami of C2-C4
latissimus dorsiTS AN Latissimus Dorsi 001SP T7-L5; thoracolumbar fascia; iliac crest; posterior sacrum, ribs 9-12; inferior angle of scapula (occasionally)medial lip of bicipital groove of humerusadduction, medial rotation & extension of humerus; anterior pelvic tilt, elevation of pelvis; depression of scapula; downward rotation of scapulathoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8)
levator scapulaeCS AN Levator Scapulae 001TP of C1-C4medial border of scapula (superior part)elevation of scapula; extension & lateral flexion of neckdorsal scapular nerve (C3, C4, C5)
rhomboidsTS AN RhomboidsMajor: SPs of T2-T5; supraspinous ligament Minor: SPs of C7 & T1; ligamentum nuchae; supraspinous ligamentmedial border of scapula Major: scapular spine to inferior angle Minor: medial angle/root of spineretraction (adduction) of scapula; elevation & downward rotation of scapuladorsal scapular nerve (C4-C5)
serratus anteriorTS AN Serratus Anterior  ribs 1- 9 (outer surface)costal surface of medial border of scapulaprotract (abducts) scapula; upward rotation of scapula; stabilizes scapulalong thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7)
serratus posterior inferiorTS AN Serratus Post-InferiorSPs of T11-L2ribs 9-12 (inferior external border)depression of ribsintercostal & sub costal nerves
serratus posterior superiorTS AN Serratus Post-SuperiorSPs of C7-T3ribs 2-5 (superior external border)elevation of ribsintercostal & sub costal nerves
 
MuscleOriginInsertionActionNerve
Erector Spinae Group
iliocostalisTS AN Iliocostalislumborum: medial iliac crest & sacrum thoracis: angle of ribs 7-12 cervicis: angle of ribs 3-6lumborum: angle of ribs 7-12 thoracis: angle of ribs 1-6 cervicis: TPs of C3-C6bilateral: extension of the spine (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilizationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
longissimusTS AN Longissimusthoracis: iliac crest, posterior sacrum, TPs L1-L5 cervicis: TPs of T1-T5 capitis: TPs & articular processes of C5-C7 & TPs of T1-T4thoracis: TPs of T1-12 & ribs 4-12 (medial to tubercle) cervicis: TPs & posterior tubercles of C2-C6 capitis: temporal bone (mastoid process)bilateral: extension of the spine & head (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilizationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
spinalisTS AN Spinalisthoracis: SPs T11-L2 cervicis: SP of C7 & inferior nuchal ligament capitis: TPs of C7-T6 & articular process of C4-C6 (medial part of semispinalis)thoracis: SPs of T4-T8 cervicis: SP of C2 capitis: occipital bone (considered to be the medial part of semispinalis)bilateral: extension of the spine & head (maintenance of erect posture); unilateral: lateral flexion & rotation to same side of the spine & head; opposite muscles contract eccentrically for stabilizationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
Transversospinalis Group
semispinalisTS AN Semispinalisthoracis: TPs of T6-T10 cervicis: TPs of T1-T5 capitis: TPs of C7-T6 & articular process of C4-C6thoracis: SPs of C6-T4 cervicis: SPs of C2-C5 capitis: occipital bone (between superior & inferior nuchal lines)bilateral: extension of head & neck; controls lateral flexion to side opposite contraction (eccentric for stability); maintains head posturespinal nerve (dorsal rami)
multifidusTS AN Multifidilumbar: mamillary processes of L1-L5 (not TPs) thoracic: TP of T1-T12 cervical: articular processes of C4-C7 (not TPs)SPs of all vertebrae extending from L5 - C2, 3-4 segments above the originbilateral: extension of vertebral column (trunk & neck); unilateral: rotate vertebral bodies (column) to opposite side; control lateral flexion to side opposite contraction (eccentric for stability)spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
rotatoresTS AN Rotatorestransverse processes of C3-L5 (most developed in thoracic spine)spinous process (base) & lamina 1-2 segments above originrotation to opposite side, bilateral extension; stabilize vertebra & are involved as organs of proprioception (position sense of the spine due to the large number of sensory nerve fibers in these tiny muscles)spinal nerve (dorsal rami)
Other deep group muscles
quadratus lumborumTS AN Quadratus Lumborumposterior iliac crest & iliolumbar ligament12th rib (inferior border) & TPs of L1-L4elevation of pelvis; lateral flexion of trunk; depression of 12th riblumbar plexus (T12-L3)
interspinalisTS AN Interspinalis 001SP of vertebraeSP of vertebrae aboveextension of neck & trunkdorsal rami of spinal nerves
intertransversariiTS AN Interspinalis 001TP of vertebraeTP of vertebrae abovelateral flexion of neck & trunkdorsal rami of spinal nerves
levator costarumTS AN Interspinalis 001TPs C7-T11 (posterior lateral tip)ribs 1-12 (below the TP)elevation of ribs (inspiration)dorsal rami of spinal nerves
(c)Dr. Nikita Vizniak. All Rights ReservedIn order to use these tables as a learning tool, you will need to have JavaScript enabled.

These muscle tables are often slightly different than those found in the muscle manual and other texts to allow students learning to realize there are subtle differences in anatomical variation and nomenclature ultimate allowing you to be more aware of real life presentation – after 15 years and over 400 cadaver dissections this author is always amazed at the differences found in the human body every time we are in the cadaver lab – all text books and videos are only accurate to a point!

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